Looking back on cocaine dependence:
reasons for recovery

Flynn PM, Joe GW, Broome KM,
Simpson DD, Brown BS.
Institute of Behavioral Research,
Texas Christian University,
Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.
[email protected]
Am J Addict. 2003 Oct-Dec;12(5):398-411


Factors that contributed to long-term recovery from cocaine dependence were examined as part of a 5-year national follow-up study of 708 patients from 45 treatment programs in eight U.S. cities. Outcomes from 33% of the sample were highly favorable at follow-up, including no drugs detected in urine or hair specimens, no self-reported use of any drugs, less than daily alcohol use, and no illegal activity or arrests during the past year. Major reasons cited for these improvements were motivations to change, positive influences of family, strength from religion and spirituality, and help from drug treatment. "Recovery" was viewed as a continuous process and one that benefits from lessons learned in treatment. These retrospective attributions affirm many of the same findings from prospective outcome studies and contribute to a conceptual framework for treatment process and recovery.

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