Centrosome-Specific Perturbations during in Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes Exposed to Cocaine
Combelles CM, Carabatsos MJ, London SN, Mailhes JB, Albertini DF
Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology,
Tufts University School of Medicine,
Boston, Massachusetts, 02111 Buehler BA
Exp Cell Res 2000 Oct 10; 260(1):116-126


Previous studies indicating that cocaine may perturb meiotic chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes prompted an analysis of the effects of cocaine on mouse oocytes matured in vitro under defined exposure conditions. Cumulus-enclosed mouse oocytes were matured in vitro in the continuous presence of cocaine and assessed for meiotic cell cycle progression and centrosome-microtubule organization using a combination of cytogenetic and fluorescence microscopic techniques. Both of these approaches demonstrated that cocaine had little effect on meiotic cell cycle progression to metaphase of meiosis-2 except at the highest dose tested (1000 mug/ml) where progression from metaphase-1 to metaphase-2 was inhibited. Cytogenetic analyses further showed that bivalent segregation was moderately affected and the incidence of premature centromere separation was significantly decreased following cocaine treatment. Under conditions of cocaine exposure, striking changes in meiotic spindle structure and cytoplasmic centrosome organization were observed. A 36% reduction in spindle length was associated with a loss of nonacetylated microtubules and fragmentation of spindle pole centrosomes. Moreover, in oocytes exposed to cocaine during maturation, a doubling in cytoplasmic centrosome number was observed. These results are discussed with respect to the relative roles of chromosomes and centrosomes in establishing and maintaining functional microtubule organization during meiosis in oocytes

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